ASK, ANSWER, LEARN
What types of screenings are available for diagnosing Diabetes?
Sebastian White, NP answered:
Diabetes mellitus is a diseaseresulting in high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood stream. These highlevels of glucose are caused by the body’s inability to produce or properly useinsulin. There are three screening tests for diabetes in non-pregnant persons:the fasting blood glucose test, the hemoglobin A1c test and the oral glucosetolerance test.
The fasting blood glucose test isroutinely done as part of annual lab work with your primary care provider. Theblood sample is taken after no calorie intake for minimum of 8 hours. A fastingblood glucose result less than 100mg/dl is normal, 100-125 mg/dl isprediabetes, and 126 mg/dl or higher is diabetes.
The hemoglobin A1c test is anon-fasting blood test that measures the average daily blood sugar over theprevious 3 months. An A1c of 5.7% reflects an estimated average daily bloodsugar of 120, while 6.5% reflects an estimated average daily blood sugar of 140.An A1c test result of less than 5.7% is normal, 5.7-6.4% is prediabetes, and6.5% or greater is diabetes.
The oral glucose tolerance test isdone in the medical office after no calorie intake for minimum of 8 hours. Theoral glucose tolerance test involves drinking an energy-rich beverage with75grams carbohydrate and checking the blood sugar two hours later. An oralglucose tolerance test result of less than 140 mg/dl is normal, 140-199 mg/dlis prediabetes, while 200 or higher is diabetes.
Generally, we like to see resultsfrom at least two tests to make the diagnosis of diabetes. However if someonecomplains of weight loss, increased thirst, increased urination or hunger, ANDtheir blood glucose is greater than 200 mg/dl, we can accurately diagnosediabetes.
The goals of diabetes screeningtests are to identify persons at risk for developing diabetes-relatedcomplications such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease and stroke.
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